ASEAN Moslem Community as Track-9 on Multitrack Diplomacy for The Conflict Resolution in Southeast Asia Region

In 2009, ASEAN leaders was meet in Thailand to discussing the growth and future plan of ASEAN. From this meeting, the ASEAN leaders aggreed to create specific ways to establishing ASEAN vision in 2020. Many programs was launched. As we know that almost five dekade, ASEAN has been strugle on the international environtment change. ASEAN has successfull to maintain cooperation and stability in the region. So, ASEAN tries to make a good point by developing futuristic and ideal mision in 2020. ASEAN vision in 2020 is establishing Southeast Asia region as open, peaceful, stable, wealthy and harmony, united by the cooperation in the democratic environ-ment, integrated development on economic growth, respectfull each other, united with the history and cultural heritage and all of them are united in the one regional identity (ASEAN Secretariat, 2010 : 1). On Bali Concord II, the ASEAN leaders aggreed that in the implementation of ASEAN vision 2020, it is need to real actions by establishing three pillars of ASEAN Community. They are ASEAN Political-Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community. These three pillars may enhanching the preparation for ASEAN vision 2020.

Three years after the declaration for the Roadmap for the ASEAN Community, the activities related with the community is stull fluctuative and variative. The ASEAN Economic Community showed good progress. On the way to open the region for the outsider and to enhanching regional econbomic cooperation, some aggreement was signed with its rule. Some of the aggreement has been implemented but another is stil on discussion. In the ASEAN Political-Security Community, there are many meeting and cooperation to enhanche cooperation on politics and security to establishing peacefull Southeast Asia region, including some specific problems like terror-ism, transnational crime and human security. Anothe specific problem is about border management among the members. The last pillar, the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community also showing some progress but just few publication to educated the people and developing awareness of the community.

The problems that faced related with the activities to ASEAN Community 2015 is on socialization by the members to their people. For the developed country like Singapora, while the access of the infor-mation is very easy, so the socialization does not find difficulties, but for developing countries with large population, access of information still be a problem. This problem giving the impact for the progress like few support from the people, low conciusness and all of this based on the problem of the information while the people do not understand well the advantage of the community.

The roles of the academician, businessman and religion group is needed. Their roles can fullfil the empty space that can be provided by the government. Government has many limitation both on spreading information and eduating the people. So the role of non government group is very needed here. This groups can create a network and cooperation with their partners in another state members. By this way, the people of the members can get enough informa-tion because this group can act more flexible than the government. Beside preading the information, these epictemic community can also helping to find some solution for the conflict resolution in Southeast Asia region, of course it is based on their activity focused.

One of the problem in ASEAN is about moslem community and related problems. The problems of moslem community in the region can be generalized on two problems. First, politic related problem. We have known that in some ASEAN countries members like Philipina, Thailand and Myanmar there are some problem related with moslem community that live there. The problem generaly related with their relation with the government.in Philipina and Thailand, the problem of moslem community related with the reparation movement, while in Myanmar it is related with the ommunity relations with the military regime. In other countries member, there are also many problems related with the politics. Second, economic related problem. Population of the moslem commu-nity in the region is the largest. But in other hand, they still face the economic problem like poverty. This problem can also be caused of the politic and security problem. Both two main problem should to find the solution.

Related with both problems, so the question is, is ASEAN Community 2015 have mechanism to create the solutions? Of course, I do believe that there are no specific for moslem community resolution in ASEAN but, ASEAN have some regulation and mechanism for the general problem. So, to supporting ASEAN effort to solve many problem inside, it will very good if the moslem epistemic community in ASEAN, have initiative to establish an ASEAN moslem community. It is not to build exclusivity but, it rather than buildthe coordination of the cooperation and net-work to work together to find the solution of moslem community problem in Southeast Asia region.

This article will describe how the ASEAN moslem community can be played as diplomatic tools for conflict resolution. I will use multitrack diplomacy concept which one of the track is the role of religion or peacemaking through faith in action. This article devide on four part. They are backgroud, multitrack diplomacy approach, the problems of moslem in Southeast Asia and the role which can be played by the ASEAN moslem community.

METHODOLOGY

MULTITRACK DIPLOMACY

Indeed, diplomacy was known as two general field. They are first-track diplomacy and second-track diplo-macy. First-track diplomacy is focus on the diplomatic activities played by the government. This field is also called official diplomacy. The second-track diplomacy is more focused on non government actors. It also called unofficial diplomacy. These diplomacy activity has done by non government actors like businessman, NGOs and even individu (Djelantik, 2008).

On the growth of the diplomacy concept and activity, some American scholars tried to make an-other approach to diplomacy. Their approach then called multitrack diplomacy. This concept, actually, begin on the analogy when some blind people try to describe an elephant. On their description, the are describe an elephant in vary description. It is because they describe an elephant on the different side of it. These analogy then also using to enrich the concept of multitrack diplomacy, that in the implementation, some diplomatic activities seen uneffective so it is needed to be enhance. In the conflictual situation, the problem usually is so complext and complicated, so it is need for another actors with variative background to work together.

Begin of that problem, then, American scholars try tto make a new approach in the diplomacy activities related with the conflict resolution. Multitrack diplomacy is a concept that describe how the process of world peace on multi dimension view. Multidimension means that on the process, involving many actors with different backgroud, they are inter-connected each other, helping each other and united in the similar purpose, a world peace. So, multitrack diplomacy can be explained as conceptual framework which designed to describe many activities that contributed to the development of world peace (Diamond and McDonald, 1996 :1).

Multitrack diplomacy concept is an enhance of the second-track diplomacy. Second track diplomacy, for the first time, launched by Joseph Montville in 1982. This concept used to explain the unformal and unofficial method on diplomacy done by govenrment and non government actors, even individu. Their diplomacy activities have three main purposes. They are to release or refuse the conflict among groups or nation state by focuse on communication, common understanding and relations; decreasing the tension, angry, fear or misunderstanding by humanizing the enemy and giving personal experience each other directly in the society; and influencing the way of thinking and action of the first track diplomacy by showing the root of the problem, feeling and need of options exploration without prejudgement, especially to establishing official diplomatic activity like negotia-tion or redevelop the policy. The main idea of second track diplomacy is that in the conflcit resolution, government or state can not walking alone, but it is need other actors which have knowledge, capabilities in many field related with the conflict.

The result of the enhancing fof second track diplomacy, then called multitrack diplomacy. Multi-track diplomacy have nine track activities done by government or non government actors. They are government (peacemaking trough diplomacy); non government or proffesional (peacemaking trough professional conflict resolution); business (peacemak-ing through commerce); private citizen (peacemaking trough personal involvement); research, training and education (peacemaking through learning); activism (peacemaking trough advocacy); religion (peacemaking trough faith in action); funding (peacemaking throgh providing resources); and communications and the media (peacemaking trough information) (Diamond andMcDonalds, 1996 : 4-5).

In this articles, I will use the seventh track of diplomacy is religion. The discussion abouth these seventh track will be used to explain the role that can be plaed by ASEAN moslem community on conflict resolution in Southeast Asia region. Many religion groups in local, national, regional and international, are active on many effort and activity trough peacemak-ing process. They have similiar vission is creating the world peace. This vision developed by the norms and value which integrated on the belief system and the commitment for something like the spiritual truth of the interconnectedness of all life; social action; a prophetic imperative to seek justice, feed hungry, heal the sick and minister to the poor; equality and justice; forgiveness, concrition and reconciliation; practicing one’s spriritual values in one’s one life; community; hospitality; full and loving presence with the porr; the fostering of hope; living with an open, loving and compassionate heart; non violence and, insome case, pacifism; caretaking of ourselves, one another, and all precious beings; and service (Diamond and McDonalds, 1996).

The activities that played by the religion commu-nity is related with another track on multitrack diplomacy like public education, conference, research, discussion, mediation, dialogue project, comment in the media, protest, campaign, publication and other activities. These activities also done together with another religion community like interfaith dialoge where it is very important to exchange the opinion each other and build a networking and cooperation for conflict resolution. Interfaith dialogue can be played as informal conflict resolution or conciliation that before very difficult to do for the public. The concept which develope on the religion community, then, called transformational politics, a concousness or a view to the world shoud be change related with the change of the issues by time, and change of counciousness have to involving to the policy (Diamond dan McDonalds, 1996 : 97-100).

The position of the seventh track of multi-track diplomacyt is the center of multitrack diplomacy it self. Why? Because there are spiritual spirit, idealism and basic of ethic, that all of them as the basic of the people. Without heart and mind, it will difficult to accepting the goald of peace. The positive aspect of this track is it can be used to bring to the higher dimension on the understanding and feeling toward war and peace issues. The unity is a basic in the religion, showed in the love each other in diversity. But, we should also aware of negative side of this track while the religion conflict is begin on the different historical view that full of conflict and the view of truth and false in another side.

Author : Tonny Dian Effendi