Writing skill is one of the four language skills which plays a very important role in language learning. It is one of the language skills to release thinking through written work. Writing skill is more complex than other English skill because to make a good writing, people need to pay attention in content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics. It is also stated by Goldman and Hirsch (1986:11). They state that writing is clearly a complicated activity that requires intense concentration. In English, there are several types of texts such as descriptive text, narrative text, procedure text, recount text, etc. In this occasion, the researcher will focus on writing recount text.
Recount text is one of the kinds of the texts which students encounter. It is a writing type which deals with past experience. According to Anderson (1997:48), a recount is speaking or writing about past events or a piece of text that retells past events, usually in the order which they happened. A recount has social function is to document a series of events and give a descriptions of what occurred and when it occurred.
Based on the curriculum of junior high school in Indonesia, namely curriculum 2006 or KTSP, the grade VIII students are expected to be able to construct recount text in short and simple about activity or event by considering social function, text structure, and grammar correctly. In the contrary, most students especially junior high school were difficult to write recount text. This also occurs at SMP Negeri 6 Palu. The grade VIII students got confused to use past verb and punctuation. For example, they wrote “I go to beach” instead of “I went to beach” to tell past event. Moreover, they put punctuation at the wrong place. For Example, they wrote “Do you like going to the beach.” instead of “Do you like going to the beach ?” to show interrogative statement.
After conducting the observation and realizing the students problem, the researcher predicts that the problems were caused by limitation of times and lack of time to explain about writing skill because all of English skill are important and integrated so teaching writing is limited by other skill in a meeting. In addition, the students had limited time to practice writing hence their writing ability was never improved.
To solve the students’ problem, there are several media which can be used such as daily journal, diary, and photographs. In this occasion, the researcher used photograph as the medium in improving the students ability especially to write recount text. Using photograph as medium is very helpful to support students writing ability because it can stimulate the students to write the past events chronologically. According to Raimes (2002: 27-28), a photograph is available resource as it provides sharing experience in the classroom, a need common language form reuse in the classroom, a variety of tasks, and a focus of interest for students. Photographs usually capture past events and help students to remember details about people, places and events. Based on the usefulness of the photographs, the researcher chose photograph as medium to improve the ability of the grade VIII students of SMP Negeri 6 Palu to write recount text.
In this research, the researcher applied quasi experimental research design. The quasi experimental research design is used to get the empirical data in investigating the use of photographs to improve students’ ability to write recount text. Empirical data is data that is produced after a procedure has taken place such as an experiment or investigation. Since this study uses the quasi experimental design, there were two classes taken as the investigated classes. The first was the experimental class, which was given the treatment by using photographs, while the second was the control class, which was not given treatment. Furthermore, two kinds of test were conducted in this study, those were pre-test and post-test. The following is the design adapted from Cohen (2005:214)
The researcher took all students in gradeVIII of SMP Negeri 6 Palu as a research population. in the academic year 2016/ 2017. There were nine classes of the grade VIII that consists of 30 students for each class. The sample of this research was VIII D as the experimental class and VIII B as the control class. The technique of taking sample was purposive sampling technique because the VIII B and VIII D had low ability to write especially to wite recount text.
The researcher used tests as the instrument in collecting data. There were two tests administered for the experimental group and the control group in this research. The first was a pretest to know the preliminary data about the condition of the students’ writing ability. The second was a posttest to know the achievement of the implementation of Photograph in improving the students’ ability to write recount text.
Author : Fitriyani Ghazali