For a long-time, Turkey is well known as part of European country due to the geographic location of the continent and culture, especially from post-Ottoman Caliphate culture. It is also an alliance to the West and has become the member of NATO, an organisation of the West European security alliance. It is necessary for Turkey to be the member of the European Union (EU) referring to its relations and proximity to the EU states. It was unsurprising reason that Turkey is viewed to prioritise of its membership in the EU.
Before discussing Turkish foreign policy toward the European Union, it is better to know the definition of foreign policy, how it is developed and how to implement it. The old definition of foreign policy is understood as a formulation of national interests and put it into international fora as advance goals, to gain the goals, and act to be a winner in the international game. In the new form of foreign policy, it remained as a more complex affair.
Laura Neack explored foreign policy in broad view. She explained that “Foreign policy is made and conducted in complex domestic and international environments as the results from the work of coali-tions of interested domestic and international actors and groups. The issues are often linked and delinked, reflecting the strength of various parties and their particular concerns. It derives from issues of domestic politics as well as foreign relations, and it needs to be multilevel and multifaceted in order to confront the complicated sources and nature of foreign policy.” (Neack, 2008).
Charles Hermann defines foreign policy as “the discrete purposeful action that results from the political level decision of an individual or group of individual. (It is) the observable artifact of a political level decision. It is not the decision, but a product of the decision.” His definition more close to the mean-ing of foreign policy as the behaviour of states (Neack, 2008).
On the opposite, Bruce Russet, Harvey Starr, and David Kinsella in broader definition of foreign policy asserted: “We can think of a policy as a program that serves as a guide to behaviour intended to realize the goals of an organization has set for itself.… foreign
policy is thus a guide to actions taken beyond the boundaries of the state to further the goals of the states.” They defined that if study foreign policy its must involve “formulations and implementation” of policy (Neack, 2008).
Furthermore, Deborah Gerner embraced the interest of Hermann in states behaviour and the focus of Russet, Starr, and Kinsella’s on programs or guides. She defined foreign policy as “the intentions, state-ments, and actions of an actor – often, but not always, a state – directed toward the external world and the response of other actors to these intentions, state-ments and actions.” (Neack, 2008).
Robert J. Jackson explained there are three standard models of the foreign policy process. The first is the rational actor model which has six basic steps include distinguish a problem from other; review the values, goals, and objectives in the form of priority; compile the alternative tools to achieve the goals; estimate the costs and benefits would come from each alternative tools; compare the costs and benefits of the other alternatives tools; and selects the maximum advantages with the minimum risks. Second, the organisational process model, it constitutes the standardisation of responses and operations in order to reach their goals. Third, the government or bureau-cratic model, it views that various government actors and organisations would produce different goals and its actions, but would happen in a kind of bargain process (Jackson, 2013).
We can conclude that the foreign policy making process could be separated each model in practice, but it might be as an embracement of two or three model as mentioned above. The actors would start from their basic interest towards a standardisation then come to more complex interconnectivity. In the form of interests, interconnectivity foreign policy could be compiled as prioritised and considered as large and long term advantages.
Foreign policy could be implemented globally by diplomacy as the oldest arts of states to pursue their objectives, goals and demands. Diplomacy is used to develop accommodative policies on the specific issues, negotiation in the cases, moderation in solving a problem, and or consider to avoid unsuccessful bargain with deploying a convince, influence, induce-ment, manipulation, and furthermore coercion by reducing aid, severe diplomatic ties, or punishment in their manner. In public diplomacy, it could employ propaganda, espionage and subversion. The second form of foreign policy implementation is economic strategies in the meaning of positive and negative such as economic cooperation, funds, other aids, sanctions, embargo or boycott. Third, military and coercive strategies, it can include deterrence, corpulence, and arms race (Jackson, 2013). There are also some diplo-macy techniques such as conferences, meetings, visits, alliances, containment, détente, until army deploy-ment and the army coalition’s attacks.
In the nature in implementing the foreign policy, it will boost to the use of a diplomacy method rely on the origin and its effectiveness. G.R. Berridge men-tioned that diplomacy is an important means to pursue foreign policies whereas in many state actors are still concreted in the ministry of foreign affairs. Diplomacy in the changing nature has very important functions include ceremonial, management, informa-tion and communication, international negotiation, the duty of protection and contribution to interna-tional order (Berridge, 2010).
Next discussion will focus on the nature of Turkey as the basis of its foreign policy making and imple-menting. There are some levels in foreign policy implementation as defined into the level of analysis, namely individual level, organisational level, state level and international level. The level analysis would be cover all of the level analysis but obviously show the state and international level of analysis. The research describes how Turkish relations with the European Union, its attempts to be a European Union member, and the latest situation as the response of European Union member for Turkish efforts. It is a descriptive research with qualitative analysis to references.
Author : Anton Minardi