English teachers in all levels of education in Indonesia try hard to make their students can speak and write English. To make their teaching and learning success, they sometimes mix English with Bahasa Indonesia in their classroom instructions. All language classrooms input must be in the target language. An effective model of language used can ensure that the intended learning was successful (Krashen cited in Ahmad, 2009). Therefore, classroom instructions from the teacher are most valuable input for learners in English classes. Code – mixing (CM) is shifting from one language to another in a conversation. It refers to the combination of several languages or dialects in the same conversation or sentence by bilingual people (Gardner-Chloros, 2009 cited in Horasan, 2014). We can find it in everyday practice among people in the world for various reasons and usually a unconscious activity. This language mixing not be the whole sentence, but also can occur in brief phrases or words, in this case the teachers mix English (L2) with Bahasa Indonesia (L1).
They use their first language (L1) and their second language (L2) in different domains. They do this is not only used in everyday communication but also in the classroom interaction between teacher and students, and students and students. We call this as classroom code-mixing. English as an international language has been taught in many countries in this world as a foreign or second language. As a foreign language, English is also taught in Indonesia because English is one of the lessons in every level of education from elementary school until University level. In this study especially in Junior High School level. It is stated in Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan No. 68 Tahun 2013, it is about “Kerangka Dasar dan Struktur Kurikulum Sekolah Menengah Pertama / Madrasah Tsanawiyah”. It is clear that English is a main lesson in Curriculum for Junior High School level in Indonesia. Based on KTSP (Kurikilum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) in Junior High School level, there are four skills in English that should be taught to the students, they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. In those skills, teachers sometimes use code-mixing in teaching English.
They do this because of many reasons. One of the reasons is to achieve teaching English goals. It is found by David Chen (2009) , conducted a study about Teacher Code-Switching in Secondary English and Science in Malaysia. English lessons necessitates use of code-mixing / code-switching to convey the message to the students. Code mixing is also a necessary tool for teachers to achieve teaching goals and to make teachers‟ messages more comprehensible to students. Based on researcher‟s observation at SMPN 14 Kota Bengkulu, teachers mix English with Bahasa Indonesia is an usual thing to do in teaching and learning process in English classes. Rezvani.E and Rasekh.AE (2011) also found that code switching is a frequently applied strategy and a valuable resource for bilingual teachers in foreign language classrooms, and its judicious and skillful use can boost the quality of teaching. The phenomenon of teachers using their first language when teaching a second language is a form of codemixing and it is common to occur in situations where the teacher and the students share the same language or mother tongue. The use of Indonesian was common among both the teacher and the students. In my experience, I found that was hard to maintain and that it sometimes actually seemed to benefit the students more to use Indonesian instead of English.
This phenomena makes researcher interested to do analyzing why code – mixing is necessary for teachers in teaching English. According to Muysken (cited in Didar H., 2015), “Code-mixing is a process in which lexical items and grammatical features of two or more languages exist in the same sentence. In another book, Muysken ( cited in Didar H., 2015) used the term code-mixing to refer “to all cases where lexical items and grammatical features from two languages appear in one sentence. Based on Jendra (cited in Sumarsih. 2014) ”Code-mixing is a symptom of language usage in which „a mixing or combination of different variations within the same clause‟. The mix of code mixing describe in the sentence: “This morning I sudah bawa my baby tu near babysitter lah”. Based on this example occurs code mixing due to mixing speakers of both language (code) in a mixed sentence.
On code means there is a dominant language used, e.g. in the predominantly English – speaking. Speech as the dominant Indonesian officials, but interspersed with the occasional foreign language to make it look cool or acceptable. So that it can be concluded that code-mixing is a mixture between two or more languages in which there is a dominant language and inserted with different language to make it sound cool and give appropriate context to the listener. Code-mixing is actually the mixing of different varieties of language. It refers to mixing of two different codes within a sentence. Wardhaugh (1992) defines code–mixing as the deliberate use of two languages without an associated topic change. It is basically found in multilingual places. It is closely related to code-switching. Code–mixing does not necessarily result in a change of topic or section. It occurs when conversant use both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance.
This kind of alteration is called code– mixing. The purpose of code–mixing seems to symbolize a somewhat ambiguous situation for which neither language on its own would be quite right. To get the right effect the speakers balance the two languages, then a few words of the other, and then back to the first for a few more words and so on. The changes generally take place more or less randomly as far as subject-matter is concerned, but they seem to be limited by the sentencestructure. Based on Didar H. ( 2015 ) Code–mixing involves mixing of:A). Two languages, B). Two or more languages, C). Two or more diglossic varieties‟.
Name : Tri Ramadhaniarti, Safnil, Arono
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