EFL instruction in Indonesia is in one hand showing successful story that the EFL learners can achieve good/excellent English skills. Iftanti (2015) in her study for example found that among Indonesian EFL learners, there are some EFL college students who successfully established good habits in reading English for some factors such as personal, social, cultural, and technological factors. In addition, there are some successful stories which generally state that the success of EFL instruction is reported to be influenced by the appropriateness of the use of teaching techniques and or teaching media with the students’ need. Teaching writing using comic strips through Process-Genre Based Approach (PGBA), for example, is proved to be able to successfully improve students’ ability in writing if the stories used are appropriate with the EFL learners and the teacher’s guidance during the writing process is sufficient (Megawati & Anugerahwati, 2012). Student teachers’ writing ability in English can be developed by using Systemic Functional Linguistic Genre Pedagogy (SFL GP) (Emilia & Hamied, 2015).
There is also a study demonstrating the successful learners of Senior High School in their writing skill that was identified by having used more learning strategies than the ones who are not successful (Mistar et.al.,2014). However, those research reports which demonstrate successful stories of EFL instruction only occurs in some certain contexts of teaching and learning English. On the other hand, there are also some unhappy stories which tell that although they have learnt English from their early age, they are not good at their English competence. Many EFL Learners in Indonesia suffer from difficulties since the language environment does not support them and no unified national system of English education in Indonesia (Huda, 2016). There are also some substantial unconstructive influences of the EFL Indonesian students’ cultures and the non-conducive language environment which continuously challenge the English language teaching and bring about negative impact of the learning outcomes (Marcellino, 2015).
In response to the fact that EFL instruction in Indonesia does not work as being expected, EFL teachers need to sustainably work on innovating a joyful instructional model which leads to the success story of the EFL teaching and learning. As the result of need analysis done through questioning and interviewing the college students of Post Graduate Program of State Islamic Institute of Tulungagung, it is found that even though they have learnt English since their elementary level of education -as mostly done by Indonesians EFL students- they keep having too many problems in English which is related with vocabulary as in line with studies done by Fauzan & Yusuf, 2016; Zuraini, & Yusuf, 2016; grammar which is also parallel with Miftah (2016) who demonstrates EFL students’ grammatical problems in their writing products. Moreover, the preliminary study also found that those post graduates EFL students of non English department also had problems and confusion in understanding English tenses and how to use those tenses in a real context.
This fact supports a study done by Salikin, 2015 which reveals the EFL adult learners’ perception on their failure in the mastery of tenses. In addition, from the written diagnostic test of writing a simple paragraph about their expectation of learning English and oral test about introducing themselves and their future dream, it was indicated that they competence of English skills is considered low. This factual condition is in line with a study conducted by Megawati et.al. (2016). which demonstrates EFL problems in English language skills. Many of the EFL learners who have learnt English did not shape their mastery of tenses and aspects. Meanwhile, what they expect in their learning English is that they want to be able to speak, write, and read in English well without having too much difficulties in terms of vocabulary and grammar.
This fact mostly brings those EFL adult learners about keeping silent during classroom instruction and making them be not motivated to learn English. Accordingly, it is necessary to implement teaching strategy which is helpful and attracting them to be more actively participated during EFL instructional process. As a result, this hopefully leads to create a joyful learning atmosphere which will further trigger the EFL learners’ active involvement and participation during the EFL instructional process. Studies reveal that joyful and interesting learning atmosphere is importantly able to smoothly and naturally improve the EFL students’ English competence (Anwar & Muhamad, 2016: Aslan & Rasouli, 2013; Singh, Nurhayati, 2012). There are many ways to create interesting learning atmosphere. By considering that college students of post graduate Program which are classified as adult learners have more learning experience- i.e. more reading practices-, it is believed that using their own learning experience is meaningful to help them to improve their English vocabulary, grammar, and the other skills of a language such as listening, speaking, and writing as well.
Teaching critical reading strategies as stated by Khabiri & Pakzad (2012) proved to have a significant effect on intermediate EFL learners’ vocabulary retention. This indicates that reading has positive effect to help students improving their vocabulary. Moreover, Anjomshoa and Zamanian (2014) in their study found positive relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. In addition, critical literacy and language skills development can be positively integrated (Huang, 2011). It is further demonstrated that fostering improvement in word knowledge through wide reading is potential for fostering the improvement in speaking skills (Mart, 2012). From the above mentioned empirical proofs, it can be sum up that text is then considered powerful for the EFL adult learners to improve their language skills, vocabulary, and grammar competence. In accordance with the previous explanation, it can be stated that implementing “Text-Based Learning” as one of the alternative models of teaching is believed to be significant to help the adult EFL learners to improve their English competence.
This article is therefore intended to describe the implementation of Text-Based Learning (TBL) model to help EFL adult learners to improve their active participation during classroom English instruction, improve their motivation in learning English since they are able to be involved in the leaning process, create interesting learning atmosphere and specifically improve their English competence.
Name : Erna Iftanti
Source : https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/64797-EN-text-based-learning-tbl-to-activate-adul.pdf