A Comparison of Rub Subtypes Verbs in English and Konjo Language

Language is a way to make an interaction with other people. It can be used by person to person, group to group, person to group and group to person. Alduais (2012), stated that language is used by people to communicate with others. It is used in society, communities, regions and countries. According to Epoge (2013), language is a tool to be in contact with others. Moreover, Almurazhi (2016), explained that the uniqueness of every language is about morphology and syntax rules. Based on the explanation above, we can conclude that language is very important part in our life and cannot be separated in our life. Where we use it to share our feeling, ideas, thinking etc. On the other hand, every language has own characteristics itself. In the aspect of morphological and grammatical construction, there is no one language closely related to each other.

Furthermore, by learning the language, especially about grammatical construction. It is not enough if we just pay attention to the grammatical construction of the sentence. Sentence is formed not just a random system, but it must follow the rule of it, e.g. I hit Dani and Dani hit me, it is correct. However, it is impossible to say I wash the motorcycle and the motorcycle wash me. Due to the fact, grammatical construction is interrelated with semantics. Semantic is study of meaning, we have to know the meaning of the sentence, so that, the sentence does not make us confuse. So, the grammatical construction of the sentence is formed by the meaning of it.

According to Frense & Bennet (1996), Syntax and Semantics are interrelated refers to the extent to which a word’s syntactic behavior follows form its meaning. Next, Aslani (2013), explained that the right way to analyze the meaning of a word is to consider of its semantic and syntactic relations, and to recognize the grammatical constructions in which it participates. Moreover, R.M.W Dixon made a new approach to modern grammar, he used semantic approach to make the grammatical construction of the sentence. Verb is the main part of the sentence. It has main role to convey the meaning of the sentence. Dixon (2005), divided verb into motion verb, rest verb, affect verb and giving verb. Furthermore, Affect verb is a class of verbs to make an effect with the target.

There are three semantic roles of Affect verb: Agent (someone or somebody who do the action), Manip (something which used by the agent to make an effect with the target, and Manip always touched each other with the target), Target (something which is accepted an effect). Next, the syntactic role of Affect verb: if transitive verb, there are two or more roles, A (transitive subject) and O (transitive object) and if intransitive, only one role, S (intransitive subject). Moreover, the basic constructions of Affect verb: construction I, II, and III, e.g. construction I, e.g. John (Agent) hit the chair (Target) with that stick (Manip), construction II, e.g. I (Agent) hit that stick (Manip) into the table (Target), construction III, e.g. The rain (Manip) wash my hair (Target). Based on the example, we conclude that construction I is focus on the target, construction II is focus on the manip and construction III is the unique construction, there is no Agent. Construction III happen when someone did not do it on purpose or naturally.

One of the class of Affect verb is rub subtype. Dixon (2005), defined that Rub subtype is a class of verb to make an effect with the surface of the target e.g. rub, wipe, scrape, scratch, mark, sweep, brush, shape, rake, polish, lick and wash. Furthermore, the grammatical constructions of Rub subtype: construction I (Agent + Target + Manip), II (Agent + Manip + Target), III is possible (Manip + Target), IV (Agent + (prep) Target + Manip), construction IV is only plausible and the variant of construction I, where there is preposition before the Target, and there are also two other variants of construction I, those are: variant construction Ia (Agent + Target (prep) NP), variant construction Ib (Agent + Target (Adj) + Manip) and variant construction IVb (Agent + (prep) Target (prep) NP + Manip). Unfortunately, Dixon did not mention the specific part to use all of the construction, like in spoken, fiction, magazine, newspaper etc. Based on the Dixon’s theoretical framework, is all of the constructions suitable to apply in conversation? And is the theory can be used in another language? Since we know that every language has the uniqueness itself.

Therefore, the researcher is interested to compare Rub subtype verbs in English and Konjo language in the aspect of spoken. Konjo language is one of the local language in South Sulawesi and as one branch of Malayo-Polinesian. It has sub family with Makassarese and Selayarnese. Ningsih (2016), stated that the people who used Konjo language live in the east side of Bulukumba regency, especially in Bonto Bahari sub district, Bonto Tiro sub district, Herlang sub district and Kajang subdistrict. There are some previous studies are related to this research. Nakhavaly (2012), focused on the analysis of grammatical voice in the short story “the setar”. Mohammadpour (2012), concerned with examination of verb and verb phrase in Boier Ahmadi lori based on X-bar Syntax. Next, Fu (2016), focused on semantic fuzziness and tts translation strategies. Itagaki (2017), concern with complement of the sound-class verb construction. Then, the last, Asrumi (2014), the semantic relation of denominal, deverbal, and deadjectival verbs with other arguments in the Osing language However, all of the previous studies do not investigate Rub subtype verbs refer to Dixon’s theory. This research focused on Rub subtype verbs in English and Konjo Language. The aims of this research is to assist the readers who want to study both English and Konjo language, particularly in semantics and grammar.

Name : Syamsir

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