Communication will proceed smoothly if the target language is used appropriately. This means that the language used in accordance with the circumstances of the speaker. The use of such language is called pragmatics. Pragmatics is the study of those relations between language and context that are grammaticalized, or encoded in the structure of language (Levinson, 1983). Since language plays an important role in everyday life, and that the reason language cannot be separated from the meaning and significance in every word spoken. Pragmatics is an approach used to explore the way of listener to inference an utterance uttered by the speaker in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker’s intended meaning (Ekowati & Sofwan, 2014). In human life, people need media to communicate with the others. The media is called language which is used to express ideas, feelings, needs and other needs. Any expressions have a different purposes depend on the speaker’s intent. Deixis remains a major topic of discussion in the pragmatic field, meaning “pointing” or “indicating” (Zhang et al., 2013). A word is said to be deixis if reference moving or changing, depending on the time and place of the word spoken, for example, word I, here, and now (Rosmawaty, 2013).
Deixis is a way to know the main facts on the language interpreted only in the sense intended by the speaker and the situation at the time of speaking. in having a communicative communication, the right usage of deixis becomes an important factor in building a success communication (Rachmawati, 2011). In linguistics three main types of deixis are distinguished: person, spatial, temporal (Susinskiene, 2013). Information uttered by the speakers refers to different things. Every word has a meaning to appoint a person, place or time. Actually, when the people understand the meaning of the speaker it is very difficult especially if you do not know the context of the conversation. In this case the deixis describes part of the discourse analysis, which involves the context of the speech, referring to whom is speaking, time or place, the attitude of the speaker or the location of the discourse. Regarding to this, Adegoyu, in her journal (2014), also chose Deixis to be analyzed in her research. She focused her research only in Person Deixis. Besides that, another study which also represents similarity with this research is a journal which is conducted by Rosmawati (2013), she chose deixis that performed in the novel. An information basically requires adequacy in the internal structure of the information itself so that the people can understand the message properly.
The issue will arise, what if that information can only be understood from the context. Deixis is the term used to indicate the necessity of the presence of these references in the information. Deixis concerns the ways in which languages encode or grammaticalize features of the context of utterance or speech event, and thus also concerns ways in which the interpretation of utterances depends on the analysis of that context of utterance (Levinson, 1983). Deixis in its traditional linguistic sense refers to the fact that certain linguistic forms have direct pragmatic interpretation depending on parameters of the speech situation, rather than a stable semantic value (Yang, 2011). In speaking activities, the understanding background of the speaker and the interlocutor is very important in communication. The interlocutor would be easier to understand the meaning because of the context. Therefore, the relation between language and context is regarded as a crucial thing to comprehend the meaning of language. Deixis system in one language is different with other languages system because each language has different rules and cultural backgrounds. Then the different system gives the demands of their own language for others who want to learn or use them in communication event. The writer tends to analyze a conversation by reason that in a conversation there must be a context that surrounds the language. Therefore, a conversation is a good topic to be analyzed in finding the deixis. Conversation is the way in which people socialize and develop and sustain their relationship with each other (Liddicoat, 2007). In this research, the writer chooses English and Buginese language.
The Bugis is one of the largest ethnic groups in Eastern Indonesia (Mahmud, 2010). It has its own original language named basa ugi (Buginese language) which is different from other languages even with Bahasa Indonesia as the national language (Yunus, 2014). In this study the writer examined the similarities and differences deixis in English and Buginese language. In English they use simply ‘this’ and ‘that’, ‘here’ and ‘there’ by the speaker and hearer. In Buginese, they use different words as the influenced of the different way of life and way of thinking. From these descriptions, the writer is interested to analyze the location deixis in English and Buginese by using Stephen C. Levinson’s Theory. Therefore, the writer determines the title of this analysis is Deixis in English and Buginese.
Name : Ashariah Chairul Nusu
Source : https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/261391-deixis-in-english-and-buginese-3b5147f6.pdf