Motivation is suggestion or encouragement that will cause a person to do an act in order to achieve a certain goal, which appeared as given by one person to another or from ourselves, the encoragement intended to make a better achievement. Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain the initiation, direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of behavior, especially goal directed behavior (Maehr & Meyer as cited in Brophy, 2010). There are five kinds of motivation in language learning which have been identified by Ellis (2003) and Brown (1994), they are: first, Instrumental Motivation. Baker & Jones (1998) define instrumental motivation in learning second language learning as a motivation where people learn second language to gain social recognition and status, economics openings and advantages. Second, Integrative Motivation. De Bot, Lowie, & Verspoor (2005) say that integrative motivation in second language learning is a motivation that based on “an interest in the second language and its culture and refers to the intention to become part of the culture.” Third, Resultative Motivation. Resultative motivation arises when learners who experience success or failure in second language learning become more or less motivated to learn (Churchill & Duffon, 2006).
Fourth, Intrinsic Motivation. Intrinsic motivation involves the arousal and maintenance of curiosity and can ebb and flow as a result of such factors as learners’ particular interests and the extent to which they feel personally involved in learning activities (Dornyei, 2001). Fifth, Extrinsic Motivation. Churchill & Dufon (2006:233) says, “extrinsic motivation involves performing a behavior to receive some extrinsic reward or to avoid punishment; the focus is on something external to the learning activity itself.” Nakata (2006:49) says, “motivation in learning a language occurs where learners find a meaning in learning that language in the society they live in, where using that language they can express their thoughts, exchange opinions with each other, and therefore feel they would like to learn that language continuously and autonomously.” Dornyei (2001) says” when we talk about prolonged learning activity such as mastering an L2, motivation cannot be viewed as a stable attribute of learning that remains constant for several months or years.”
The motivation may decrease or increase over time caused by several factors. According to William & Burden in Dornyei (2001) there are some factor which influence motivation, they are: age, goals, need, interest (and curiosity), attitude, expectancy, self efficacy, native language proficiency, lecturers, course content and classroom atmosphere, social identity, and role models. As Dornyei in Dornyei (2001) believed that it may be useful to include a time dimension – or temporal axis – in a motivation model that is to be applied to school learning, this research is designed to investigate the students motivation trend over three groups of students in terms of students’ instrumental, integrative resultative, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The purpose of conducting this research is to investigate three different groups of students’ level of motivation in learning English in classroom context. Due to that purpose, the writer writes the research questions as follows: 1. How does the level of motivation in learning English vary from semester 2, 4, and 6 students? What trend is shown by the data? 2. What factors contribute the students’ motivation in learning English?
From the research questions above, we can see clearly that this research build to find out the trend of motivation from three groups of students. The data of this research are analyzed in descriptive study. This research used to describe how the patterns of students’ motivation trend in learning English over time and what factors contribute students motivation in learning English. So, the significance of this research is to help students to know the factors which significantly influence their motivation in order to increase their achievement. In addition, this research also informs the lecturers about the most significant factors that contribute to the changing of students motivation.
Name : Rivana, Urai Salam, Wardah
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